The term "Biosphere" was coined by Russian scientist Vladimir Vernadsky in the 1929. It is the part of the earth, including air, land, surface rocks, and water, within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform. It is also known as the life zone of the Earth and includes all living organisms, including man, and all organic matter that has not yet decomposed.
The biosphere can be divided into distinct ecosystems that represent the interactions between a group of organisms forming a trophic pyramid and the environment or habitat in which they live. Scientifically speaking biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. In simple terms Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems. They are devoted to conserving biological diversity, promoting research and monitoring as well as seeking to provide models of sustainable development in the service of human kind.
There are fourteen biosphere reserves in India covering more than 55000 square km. area. spread from Kashmir to Kanyakumari to Andaman & Nicobar islands and from Kutch to Meghalaya and Andaman & Nicobar islands. The biosphere reserves in India, which are on the world network of Biosphere Reserves, are Sundarbans, Gulf of Mannar, Nilgiri and Nanda Devi. In Madhya Pradesh, there are two Biosphere Reserves namely Pachmarhi and Achanakmar-Amarkantak, but yet not on world network.
Government of India’s Ministry of Environment and Forest provides financial assistance to the respective State governments for conservation of landscape and biological diversity and cultural heritage. Support is also provided for research, monitoring, education and information exchange.
The Pachmari Bioreserve
The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve is a conservation area in the Satpura Range of Madhya Pradesh state, India. It was created on March 3, 1999 by the Indian Government, and covers parts of Hoshangabad, Betul, and Chhindwara districts.The Biosphere reserve's total area is 4926.28 km². It includes three wildlife conservation units, the Bori Sanctuary (518.00 km²), Satpura National Park (524.37 km²), and Pachmarhi Sanctuary (461.37 km²). Satpura National Park is designated as the core zone, and the remaining area of 4501.91 km², including the Bori and Pachmarhi sanctuaries, constitutes the buffer zone.The reserve is mostly covered in forest, part of the Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion. It is an important transition zone between the forests of western and eastern India; the forests are dominated by Teak (Tectona grandis), but include the westernmost groves of Sal (Shorea robusta), which is the dominant tree of eastern India's forests. Large mammal species include tiger, leopard, wild boar, muntjac deer, gaur (Bos gaurus), chital deer (Axis axis), sambar (Cervus unicolor), and Rhesus Macaques.
The total area of the this bioreserve is 3,835.51 sq. km. It covers parts of Anuppur and Dindori districts of Madhya Pradesh and parts of Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh State. Out of the total area, an area of 1,224.98 sq. km falls in Madhya Pradesh and the remaining area of 2,610.53 sq. km falls in Chhattisgarh state. The entire area of 551.55 sq. km of Achanakmar Sanctuary falling in Chhattisgarh State will form the core zone and remaining area of 3, 283.96 sq. km surrounding the core zone will form the buffer zone. The Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve is rich in biodiversity because of the favorable climate and edaphic factors that abound in the area. The area provides an ideal habitat for wild animals.
feature contributed by anil